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Treatment for ulcerative colitis depends on how severe the condition is and how often your symptoms flare up.
The main aims of treatment are to:
This usually involves taking various types of medication, although surgery may sometimes be an option.
Your treatment will normally be provided by a range of healthcare professionals, including:
Your care will often be co-ordinated by your specialist nurse and your care team, and they'll usually be your main point of contact if you need help and advice.
The various treatments for ulcerative colitis are outlined below. You can also read a summary of the pros and cons of the treatments for ulcerative colitis, allowing you to compare your treatment options.
Aminosalicylates (5-ASAs), such as sulphasalazine or mesalazine, are medications that help to reduce inflammation. They're usually the first treatment option for mild or moderate ulcerative colitis.
5-ASAs can be used as a short-term treatment for flare-ups. They can also be taken long term, usually for the rest of your life, to maintain remission.
5-ASAs can be taken:
How you take 5-ASAs depends on the severity and extent of your condition.
These medications rarely have side effects, but some people may experience:
Corticosteroids, such as prednisolone, are a more powerful type of medication used to reduce inflammation. They can be used with or instead of 5-ASAs to treat a flare-up if 5-ASAs alone aren't effective.
Like 5-ASAs, steroids can be administered orally, or through a suppository or enema.
However, unlike 5-ASAs, corticosteroids aren't used as a long-term treatment to maintain remission because they can cause potentially serious side effects, such as osteoporosis (weakening of the bones) and cataracts (cloudy patches in the lens of the eye) when used for a long time.
Side effects of short-term steroid use can include:
Read more about the side effects of corticosteroids.
Immunosuppressants, such as tacrolimus and azathioprine, are medications that reduce the activity of the immune system. They're usually given as tablets to treat mild or moderate flare-ups, or maintain remission if your symptoms haven't responded to other medications.
Immunosuppressants can be very effective in treating ulcerative colitis, but they often take a while to start working (usually between two and three months).
The medicines can make you more vulnerable to infection, so it's important to report any signs of infection, such as fever or sickness, promptly to your GP.
While mild or moderate flare-ups can usually be treated at home, more severe flare-ups should be managed in hospital to minimise the risk of dehydration and potentially fatal complications, such as your colon rupturing.
In hospital, you'll be given medication and sometimes fluids intravenously (directly into a vein). The medication you have will usually be a type of corticosteroid or an immunosuppressant medication called infliximab or ciclosporin.
Ciclosporin works in the same way as other immunosuppressant medications (see above) – by reducing the activity of the immune system. However, it's more powerful than the medications used to treat milder cases of ulcerative colitis and starts to work much sooner (normally within a few days).
Ciclosporin is given slowly through a drip in your arm (known as an infusion) and treatment will usually be continuous, for around seven days.
Side effects of intravenous ciclosporin can include:
Ciclosporin can also cause more serious problems such as high blood pressure and reduced kidney and liver function, but you will be monitored regularly during treatment to check for signs of these.
Infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab and vedolizumab are medications that reduce inflammation of the intestine by targeting proteins which the immune system uses to stimulate inflammation. These medications block these receptors and reduce inflammation.
They may be used to treat adults with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis, if other options aren't suitable or working. Infliximab may also be used to treat children or young people aged 6-17 with severe ulcerative colitis (see below).
The treatment is given for 12 months unless the medication isn't working well.
Read the full NICE guidelines on:
Infliximab is given as an infusion over the course of one to two hours. You'll be given further infusions after two weeks, and again after six weeks. Infusions are then given every eight weeks, if treatment is still required.
Common side effects of infliximab can include:
In most cases, a reaction to the medication occurs in the first two hours after the infusion has finished. However, some people experience delayed reactions days, or even weeks, after an infusion. If you begin to experience the symptoms listed above after having infliximab, seek immediate medical assistance.
You'll be carefully monitored after your first infusion and, if necessary, powerful anti-allergy medication, such as epinephrine, may be used.
Infliximab isn't usually suitable for people with a history of tuberculosis (TB) or hepatitis B and needs to be used with caution in those with HIV or hepatitis C. This is because there have been a number of cases where infliximab has "reactivated" dormant infections. The medication is also not recommended for people with a history of heart disease or multiple sclerosis.
If you have frequent flare-ups that have a significant effect on your quality of life, or you have a particularly severe flare-up that isn't responding to medication, surgery may be an option.
Surgery for ulcerative colitis involves permanently removing the colon (known as a colectomy).
During the operation, your small intestine will be used to pass waste products out of your body instead of your colon. This can be achieved by creating:
Ileo-anal pouches are increasingly used because an external bag to collect waste products isn't required.
As the colon is removed, ulcerative colitis can't recur after surgery. However, it's important to consider the risks of surgery and the impact of having a permanent ileostomy or ileo-anal pouch.
Read more about ileostomies and ileo-anal pouches.